Pregnancy: meaning, stages, weeks, symptoms, test, Early sign Pregnancy: meaning, stages, weeks, symptoms, test, Early sign Doctors media



Pregnancy: meaning, stages, weeks, symptoms, test, Early sign


Pregnancy: meaning, stages, weeks, symptoms, test, Early sign

Everything you need to know about pregnancy .

this article about a brief discussion about the first second third-trimester.

pregnancy is a gift of God. The most desirable thing for every woman. feel the taste of motherhood. The reproductive period of a woman begins at menarche(start of menstruation at 13 years)and ends in menopause(irreversible pause of menstruation at 45-49 years). The reproductive period extends from 13–45 years. While biological variations may occur in different geographical areas, pregnancy is rare below 12 years and beyond 50 years.

Lina Medina in Lima, Peru was the youngest one, delivery by cesarean section when she was only 5 years and 7 months old and the oldest one at 57 years and 4 months old.

Pregnancy meaning: Pregnancy is the condition of having a developing embryo or fetus in the female when an ovum is
fertilized by a spermatozoon.

DURATION OF PREGNANCY: The duration of pregnancy has traditionally been calculated by the clinicians in terms of 10 lunar months or 9 calendar months and 7 days or 280 days or 40 weeks.
 pregnancy calculator Calculated from the first day of the last menstrual periodThis is called menstrual or gestational age.
9 calendar months and 7 days from LMP(1st day of last menstruation)

early pregnancy symptoms
Amenorrhea during the reproductive period in an otherwise healthy individual having previous normal periods is likely due to pregnancy unless proved otherwise.

Morning sickness (nausea and vomiting) is inconsistently present in about 70% cases, more often in the first pregnancy than in the subsequent one. It usually appears soon following the missed period and rarely lasts beyond 16 weeks.

Frequency of micturition is a quite troublesome symptom during the 8–12th week of pregnancy. 

Fatigue is a frequent symptom that may occur early in pregnancy.

early pregnancy signs

first signs of pregnancy are stop of menstruation
Breast changes are valuable only in primigravidae, as, in multiparae, the breasts are enlarged and often contain milk for years. The breast changes are evident between 6 and 8 weeks. There is enlargement with vascular engorgement evidenced by the delicate veins visible under the skin.
The nipple and the areola (primary) become more pigmented, especially in dark women. Montgomery’s
tubercles are prominent. Thick yellowish secretion (colostrum) can be expressed as early as 12th week.
 (a) The cervix becomes soft as early as 6th week a little earlier in multiparas. The pregnant cervix feels like the lips of the mouth, while in the non-pregnant state, like that of the tip of the nose.
 (b) On speculum examination, the bluish discoloration of the cervix is visible. It is due to increased vascularity.

 The uterus is enlarged to the 
size of hen’s egg   at 6th week,
size of a cricket ball at 8th week and
size of a fetal head by 12th week. 
Then The pyriform shape of the non-pregnant uterus becomes globular by 12 weeks.
when to take a pregnancy test: it may be required after a missed period 
 A pregnancy test is done usually by a urinary strip test and confirmed by ultrasonography of the lower abdomen (uterus and adnexa).
Pregnancy tests depend on the detection of the antigen (hCG) present in the maternal urine or serum. 
 pregnancy week by week
The first Stage or trimester (0- 12 weeks ) is included in the early signs and symptoms. which was discussed earlier.
Second Stage or trimester (13-28 weeks)
SYMPTOMS: The subjective symptoms — such as nausea, vomiting, and frequency of micturition usually subside, while amenorrhea continues. The new features that appear are:

 Quickening” (feeling of life) denotes the perception of active fetal movements by the women. It is usually felt about the 18th week, about 2 weeks earlier in multiparae. 

Progressive enlargement of the lower abdomen

 Chloasma: Pigmentation over the forehead and cheek may appear at about 24th week.

 Breast changes:

(a) Breasts are more enlarged with prominent veins under the skin

 (b) Secondary areola specially demarcated in primigravidae usually appears at about 20th week
(c) Montgomery’s tubercles are prominent and extend to the secondary areola
(d) Colostrum becomes thick and yellowish by 16th week
(e) A variable degree of striae may be visible with advancing weeks.

 Linear pigmented zone (linea nigra) extending from the symphysis pubis to ensiform.

cartilage may be visible as early as 20th week (2) Striae (both pink and white) of varying degrees are visible in the lower abdomen, more towards the flanks.

Active fetal movements can be felt at intervals by placing the hand over the uterus as early as 20th week. It not only gives positive evidence of pregnancy but of a live fetus. The intensity varies from a faint flutter in the early months to stronger movements in later months. 

Fetal heart sound (FHS) is the most conclusive clinical sign of pregnancy. With an ordinary stethoscope, it can be detected between 18–20 weeks.  The rate varies from 110–160 beats per minute.

Last Stage or 3rd trimester (29-40 weeks)
 (1) Amenorrhea persists
 (2) Enlargement of the abdomen is progressive which
produces some mechanical discomfort to the patient such as palpitation or dyspnea following exertion
(3) Lightening — At about 38th week, especially in primigravidae, a sense of relief of the pressure
symptoms are obtained due to the engagement of the presenting part
(4) Frequency of micturition reappears
(5) Fetal movements are more pronounced.

Differential diagnosis of pregnancy
 uterine fibroid
 cystic ovarian tumor, 
 encysted tubercular peritonitis,
 hematometra or even
 distended urinary bladder.
Pseudocyesis / Phantomfalse pregnancy): It is a psychological disorder where the woman has the false but firm belief that she is pregnant although no pregnancy exists. The woman often is infertile who has an intense desire to have a baby. The conspicuous feature is the cessation of menstruation. Other confusing manifestations are gradual enlargement of the abdomen because of the deposition of fat, secretion from the breasts, and intestinal movement, imagining it to be fetal movement. In some cases, the condition continues until eventually spurious labor sets in. Obstetric examination reveals the absence of positive signs of pregnancy. Examination with ultrasound and/or immunological tests for pregnancy may be required to negate the diagnosis.

 Positive or absolute signs:
(1) Palpation of fetal parts and perception of active fetal movements by the examiner at about 20th week
(2) Auscultation of fetal heart sounds
(3) Ultrasound evidence of embryo as
early as 6th week and later on the fetus
(4) Radiological demonstration of the fetal skeleton at 16th week and onwards.
 Presumptive symptoms and signs: It includes the features mainly appreciated by women.
 (1) Amenorrhea
(2) Frequency of micturition
(3) Morning sickness
(4) Fatigue
(5) Breast changes
(6) Skin changes
(7) Quickening.
 Probable signs:
(1) Abdominal enlargement
 (2) Braxton-Hicks contractions
(3) External ballottement
(4) Outlining the fetus
(5) Changes in the size, shape, and consistency of the uterus
(7) Softening of the cervix 

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